Friday, May 22, 2020

Pros and Cons of MRP II Systems

What is standing behind the MRP II systems? The question is about the manufacturing resource planning. The issue comprises special software for various segments of manufacturing companies, including material requirements planning, purchasing, capacity planning, inventory, shop floor scheduling, accounting and customer order entry. The MRP II systems are known to have both – advantages and disadvantages. As for the â€Å"pluses†, one may point to the automation and standardization of business processes leading to enhancement in cost control as well as revenue. When the question is about disadvantages, the issues are related to the misunderstanding of the limitations and impact of MRP II Systems. Advantages The MRP II is a useful tool, the main function of which is to standardize all the business processes through providing automated methods for various business segments. Standardization leads to the processes that are easily repeated as well as a platform that gives an opportunity to improve all those processes. The point is that the organization that successfully implements MRP II for the first time faces with a range of troubles regarding controlling the process of controlling the increase in transactions in purchasing, manufacturing and selling associated with growth. Besides, the MRP II systems provide the employees with an opportunity to do more and, as a result, to have a clearer visibility of information for their businesses. All the advancements in the way all the work is performed enable the company to become more competitive. Disadvantages When it comes to the disadvantages of the MRP II, one should mention the fact that the implementation of the MRP II systems requires information to be accurate. In case poor quantity info is applied either in the bill of material module or the inventory segment, this will result in automated planning processes errors. The planning modules use averages for length of particular time to manufacture (lead times) or purchase and for quantities that are usually purchased regarding the purchase order or manufactured on a work order (usually known as â€Å"lot sizes†.) In case there is variability regarding the actual lot sizes produced or bought and the lead times then the planning software won’t generate plans that go with what is actually happening. The whole point is that the lack of understanding and poor information on the lot sizes and lead times average impact can cause costly reimplementation and implementation failure. When the question is about the implementation of the MRP II systems, one should take into consideration the sequence of implementation of the MRP II systems software modules and the organization tolerance for the business processes adopting changes. As a rule, the MRP II systems are implemented in various phases allowing for a period of proving the system will function before proceeding further. The components of the first phase can be the following: purchasing, inventory and accounting. Among the other phases one can mention customer order entry, material requirements planning and shop floor control. One must remember that every module requests information and data that may be created within the system for the first time, what means it is highly important to take care of in what way information is defined and stored up to date.

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Annotated Bibliography On Import Java - 719 Words

import java.io.*; import java.util.*; import java.net.*; public class FTPClient { public Socket sock = null; public BufferedReader read; public BufferedWriter write; public ServerSocket ss; public int byteTransfered; public Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in); // Check client connect to server public boolean connected = false; public boolean exit = false; String response = null; // run the main code here public static void main(String args[]) { FTPClient c= new FTPClient(); while (!c.exit) { try { if (c.connected) { System.out.print(myftp ); } else { System.out.print(Enter Server Name: ); } String text; text = c.input.nextLine(); if(text.equals(quit)) { c.quit(); return; } else if(text.equals(ls)) { c.ls(); } else { String splitString[] = text.split( , 2); String fString = splitString[0]; String sString = splitString[1]; if (fString.equals(myftp)) { c.login(sString); } else if (fString.equals(get)) { c.get(sString); } else if (fString.equals(put)) { c.put(sString); } else if (fString.equals(delete)) { c.delete(sString); } } } catch (Exception e) { System.out.println(Please use only put, get, ls, delete, and quit. ); } } } // send commands to the server private StringShow MoreRelatedAnnotated Bibliography On Import Java1518 Words   |  7 Pagesimport java.io.*; import java.util.Random; import java.util.Scanner; public class Processor { // Register variables static int IR, AC, X, Y, timer; static int PC = 0; static int SP = 1000; static int instructionCount = 0; static int userStack = 1000; static int systemStack = 2000; // turns to false on interrupts static boolean userMode = true; // avoid nested interrupt execution static boolean interrupt = false; public static void main(String args[]) { String file = null; //Read MoreAnnotated Bibliography On Import Java1531 Words   |  7 Pagesimport java.util.Scanner; import java.util.Random; public class PigDiceGameTwoVariation { public static void main(String[] args) { // TODO Auto-generated method stub String input; Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in); Random rand = new Random(); /********************************************************** * Program : Pig Dice Game Assignment * Author : Brandee Combden * Due Date : Wednesday, September 21st, 2016. * Description : Basic Two-Dice Pig, two playersRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography On Import Java726 Words   |  3 Pages /*package adsa;*/ /** * * @author GOPIKRISHN */ import java.util.HashSet; import java.util.Iterator; import java.util.Random; import java.util.Set; import java.util.InputMismatchException; public class AdjListGraph { private int distances[]; private int nodes; public static final int MAX_VALUE = 999; private SetInteger visited; private SetInteger unvisited; private int adjacencyMatrix[][]; public AdjListGraph(int nodes) //Constructor { Read MoreAnnotated Bibliography On Import Java735 Words   |  3 Pagesimport java.awt.*; import java.io.FileNotFoundException; import java.io.File; import java.util.Scanner; public class DrawMaze { public static final Color WALL_COLOR = Color.RED; public static final Color START_COLOR = Color.BLUE; public static final Color PATH_COLOR = Color.BLACK; public static final Color END_COLOR = Color.ORANGE; public static final Color BACKGROUND = new Color(0.9f, 0.9f, 0.9f); // Width of border in pixels public static int borderwidth = 40; //Read MoreAnnotated Bibliography On Import Java708 Words   |  3 Pages// to play, just run the program import java.applet.Applet; import java.applet.AudioClip; import java.net.MalformedURLException; import java.net.URL; import java.util.Scanner; import javax.sound.sampled.AudioInputStream; import javax.sound.sampled.AudioSystem; import javax.sound.sampled.Clip; public class TTT { public static Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in); public static void reset(char[][] board) { for (int i = 0; i board.length; i++) for (int j = 0; j board[0].length;Read MoreBanana Used as Fertilizer11002 Words   |  45 Pagesreview on banana diseases in 1935 has resulted in a really useful chapter, whereas any attempt to cover a wider range in forty pages must have led to a treatment too superficial to be worth while. For the pests, on which no monograph exists, an annotated list is given of 182 species and five are selected for fuller treatment. In the last chapter the author returns to his special field and gives a concise but adequate summary of the aims, methods and results of banana breeding from its inception in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Forensic Psych Free Essays

Forensic Psychology Psychology involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors of the human body. It can be looked as being broken down into two categories, basic psychology and applied psychology. Basic psychology is the use of theories and fundamentals to explain how attitudes, personalities, values, and behaviors are related while applied psychology is the use of these psychological principles and theories to overcome problems in real life situations. We will write a custom essay sample on Forensic Psych or any similar topic only for you Order Now Some of the basic psychology studies include abnormal, cognitive, developmental, and social psychology. Applied psychology applies these studies in things like clinical, forensic, health, and educational psychology. I chose to explore the study of an applied type of psych, forensic psychology. Forensic psychology is the application of the science and profession of psychology to questions issues relating to law and the legal system. The word ‘forensic’ comes from the Latin word ‘forensis,’ meaning ‘of the forum,’ where the law courts of ancient Rome were held. Not only does forensic psychology require understanding of the different psychological studies but also an understanding of the law and how it works. Looking at legal issues from a psychological standpoint combines psychology and the law. This form of psychology is used frequently in the legal system. Legal systems make use of forensic psychologists and their practice in evaluations of the mental status of defendants before, during and after trial proceedings. Most may think forensic psychology is only used in criminal matters but forensic psychologist may also assist in a wide variety of civil matters. Civil matters can include lawsuits or insurance claims where emotional affliction is a part of the claim. Determination of competency of an aged or ill person to make decisions, or whether a death was an accident or a â€Å"disguised suicide† in an insurance claim case are both examples of how forensic psychology can help aid certain legal cases. The idea of forensic psychology first came about in the late 1800’s. But it wasn’t until the 1900’s when a German psychologist by the name of Hugo Munsterberg claimed that psychology should be applied to the law. Even though this is a couple hundred years from today, it wasn’t until 2001 that the American Psychological Association recognized forensic psychology as a specialization under the study of psychology. In 1906, a defense attorney asked Hugo to review his convicted client’s investigation and trial records. This promoted his 1908 book â€Å"On the Witness Stand†. It detailed how psychological factors can influence the outcome of a trial. In the book, he discussed problems with eyewitness testimony, false confessions, and interrogations. Munsterberg points out that for various reasons why eye witness testimony is essentially unreliable, he describes how eye witness testimony is naturally susceptible to what he calls â€Å"illusions† where a subjects perceptions could be affected causing an inaccurate testimony. In the portion of the book that he calls â€Å"The Detection of Crime†, he discusses the many factors that can influence testimonies, gain confessions, and force confessions from those who are innocent. He explains some of the ways that police have of making suspects confess to crimes that they had not committed, some of these including making their life as uncomfortable as possible while in holding to be able to break down their energy, and â€Å"worst of all giving brutal shocks given with fiendish cruelty to the terrified imagination of the suspect. Later, in 1917 one of Munsterberg’s students, William Marston, discovered that systolic blood pressure and lying were directly correlated. This discovery helped lead the creation of the modern polygraph detector Forensic psychology was largely stagnant until the 1940s and 1950s, when psychologists began regularly testifying in courts as experts on a range of psychological topics. They became able to conduct evaluations t o help the court with mental statuses, the sanity of defendants, and legal competence. One of the first uses of forensic psychology in the court was in the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that ended legal segregation in public schools. Psychologists showed that segregation had a negative effect on the self-esteem of young children and the court believed this was a persuasive argument. This proved that psychologists were an extremely useful form of testimony for both the plaintiffs and defendants. Another example of the importance of forensic psychologists came around in 1962 when psychologists serving as mental illness professionals were strongly supported by the court in the case Jenkins v. United States. Here the court ruled in support to psychologists being used as expert witnesses when mental illnesses are concerned. Following this example many other courts, both federal and local, began to accept the use of psychologists and psychological assessments more willingly. Psychological assessment refers to scientific methods used by psychologists for the purpose of understanding and explaining an individual’s, couple’s or family’s psychological functioning. Psychological assessments help to define and understand personality, behavior, emoti ons, intelligence, and how they come together. Such assessments help to answer diagnostic questions, to specify a person’s strengths, weaknesses and personality structure, and to explain and to predict behavior. Assessments that are used in the forensic setting are a leading activity for those whom are involved. Forensic psychological assessments are an in-depth process utilizing extensive interviewing, and standardized psychological tests, which produce reliable, valid and reproducible results. To be all-inclusive, an assessment needs to examine a range of psychological factors, such as cognitive and personality functioning, developmental history, and interpersonal relationships. These factors can be further broken down into emotional, cognitive, intellectual, developmental, executive, educational, social, neuropsychological, and physiological functioning. Information obtained from standardized psychological assessment has a normative, statistical scientific basis, as it compares the individual against data collected in samples of normal and clinically disordered individuals. It allows the evaluator to determine how similar or dissimilar this person is to people in these samples. While individuals may attempt to â€Å"look good† or â€Å"look bad† in interviews, depending on the case at hand, most test instruments contain multiple validity scales on which to evaluate the extent to which the individual is providing honest, candid, defensive, socially desirable, or exaggerated depictions of their psychological health or symptoms. An overall aim of forensic psychological assessment is to provide the basis for concluding both previous and active factors that can help to explain specific actions, and to make recommendations applicable to the legal issues at hand. The court appoints a psychologist to determine a range of things including mental state, diminished capacity, and competency. When it comes to mental state, a determination is made as to whether there is substantial evidence that the patient suffers a mental disorder. Emotions are not considered a mental disorder. The psychologist needs to consider psychological influences at the scene of the alleged crime. Depending on the outcome of the examination, the psychologist may testify in court how the impaired mental abilities â€Å"actually caused a malformation of the mental element of the crime. The psychologist does not have to be certain that the defendant’s disorder caused him or her to be unable to form the intent or knowledge or the crime, but the expert must have some belief in the â€Å"probability or possibility† that it did. Experts need to testify with reasonable medical or psychological certainty. Three main areas of defense related to mental health include di minished capacity, competency, or mitigating (justifying) circumstances. A diminished capacity assessment focuses on whether or not a person was able to comprehend the alleged crime being committed. The psychologist assessed whether the individual, in his/her opinion, was organized, purposeful, and goal oriented. The main question is, whether the defendant’s behavior was affected by a mental disorder of mood or thought, by alcohol and or drug intoxication or an irresistible impulse induced by a mental disease affecting the person so that the person is unable to resist the impulse to commit the act that he or she has been charged with. A competency evaluation assesses whether a person has the mental facility or ability to understand the legal proceedings against them. Also, the evaluation focuses on determining whether they are able to assist their attorney in their own defense. Mitigating circumstances are sometimes considered regarding the defendant’s capacity to â€Å"appreciate the wrongfulness of their conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of the law. † Whether a person is charged with a misdemeanor or a felony, their mental state or mental illness is an issue to consider before conviction or before sentencing. The attorney representing the accused person may request a psychological evaluation or sometimes an evaluation is court ordered. Psychological expert witness testimony may also be used in a personal injury case when the plaintiff makes a case that they suffered undue  mental or emotional  pain and suffering. In family law cases, the parties may be evaluated with regard to the best interests of the child or children, and a custody and parenting-time recommendation is made. An in-depth evaluation of the parties, an assessment of their parenting and relationships with their children, and an assessment of their children’s status and developmental needs is devised in terms of the children’s best interests and a parenting and custody plan which best meets the children eeds. The following is a list of most widely known and commonly utilized psychological tests in forensic contexts: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) – The most recent of the adult Wechsler tests is a general test of intelligence, IQ (general measure of intellectual ability). There are 15 subtests that make up the WAIS-IV; at least 10 must be administered to derive an IQ score. In addition to providing an IQ, scores are derived on the following groups of the WAIS-IV subtests:   Verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. For adolescents and children, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition is used. Rorschach Ink Blot Method – This is a performance-based test instrument. The examinee is presented with the Rorschach inkblots and asked, â€Å"What do you see? † Score results provide insight into the individual’s basic psychological processes such as thinking, impulse control, stress tolerance, reality testing, imagination, and interpersonal relationships. Compared to self-report measures, the Rorschach is not nearly as vulnerable to impression-management or attempts to exaggerate problems. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) –  A self-report personality inventory, and is the most commonly used test in forensic psychological assessment. The MMPI-2 provides information along multiple scopes including clinical syndromes, personality characteristics, psychosocial stressors and severity of disturbance. Scoring provides a number of validity scales. There are 10 primary clinical scales and a multitude of content and symptom scales. Psychology is a growing field and will continued to be used in the legal content. It is an essential part of cases when dealing with the mentally ill and it aids in providing proper conviction, sentencing and rehabilitation. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Kitaeff, J. (2010). Forensic psychology. Pearson College Div. [ 2 ]. Fulero, S. M. , Wrightsman, L. S. (2010). Forensic psychology. (3rd ed. ). New York, NY: Wadsworth Pub Co. 3 ]. Munsterberg, H. (1909). On the witness stand: Essays on psychology and crime. New York: Doubleday, Page (74). [ 4 ]. Costanzo, M. , Krauss, D. (2011). Forensic and legal psychology. New York, NY: Worth Pub. [ 5 ]. Heilbrun, K. (2001). Principles of forensic mental health assessment. Springer. [ 6 ]. Wrightsman, L. (2001). Forensic psychology. Australia Belmont, Calif: Wadswor th Thomson Learning. [ 7 ]. Rosenfeld, Barry, Steven Penrod, and Barry Rosenfeld. Research Methods in Forensic Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011 How to cite Forensic Psych, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

The Economic Impact of the Icelandic Volcano Eruptions on the International Economy

Introduction It is impossible to imagine a natural catastrophe which does not influence the international economy. Paying attention to the Icelandic volcano eruptions and especially the most recent one which took place on April 14, 2010, it is possible to say that Eyjafjallajokull volcano has affected the international economy greatly.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on The Economic Impact of the Icelandic Volcano Eruptions on the International Economy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, it is impossible to say that the impact was positive. The whole international economy suffered greatly. The ash plume rose over several kilometers into the sky which could not be left invisible for the national and international economies. It is obvious that the first problem which seems to be crucial is the environmental one. So much ash in the air and other consequences of the eruption harm the nature greatly. Still, the economic impact may not be compared with the environmental one as the environment of one country was affected and the changes the eruption caused are reversible. But, the whole world suffered from the disaster which has happened on one island. Dwelling upon the international influence of the Icelandic volcano eruptions, it is necessary to state that not only the nearest countries like UK, France, Germany, and other northern European countries suffered from the disaster, but such remote ones like Japan and some other countries in Africa appeared under the influence. Thus, it may be easily stated the economic impact of the Icelandic volcano eruptions on the international economy was great, especially in the airline sector and other types of transportation, tourism, import and export, and business. At the same time, referencing to the problems which have appeared, it may be predicted that there are some specific facilities for solving those. The Influence of Icelandic Volcano Erupt ions on the Airlines It is natural that the appearance of much amount of ash in the air prevents airplanes from flying. This problem seems to be not so urgent if to consider it from the side of some tourists who had to stay on the island for several days more, but, being the international problem it is necessary to consider the far-reaching impact which is negative. Now, it is possible to calculate the costs and state that the global gross domestic product reduced on about US$4.7 billion for the first week. The global aviation has lost about US$2.6 billion along with the net aviation sector which was impacted by US$2.2 billion lost. Due to the flight restrictions, the international trade loses even impossible to calculate. Because of the airspace shutdown, about 5,000 flights were cancelled, which led to US$5.0 billion total cost of the GDP through May 2010 (The Economic Impacts of Air Travel Restrictions Due to Volcanic Ash, 2010). All this information is taken for the first week a fter the disaster.Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering the operating daily flights while the disaster, it may be easily stated that 27,000 flights were recorded on 14 April and on 17 April this number reduced up to 5,000 in the European space. The cancellation of flights impacted not only 7 million passengers, but also disrupted supply routes in the whole world. Passengers had to spend additional money on hotel rooms, taxis, food, as well as shopping and entertainment. According to the Oxford economics report, â€Å"Nearly all inter-regional travel involving Europe was affected by the crisis and, as a result, every region of the world felt the impact of lost visitors with a potential loss (over and above aviation sector losses) of US$4.2 billion in visitor spending† (The Economic Impacts of Air Travel Restrictions Due to Volcanic Ash, 2010, p. 5). Conside ring the far-reaching effects of the disaster, it is impossible to omit the following information. Those people who were far from their homes and wanted to go there had to use other options for traveling (sea, train, cars) or had to stay in the foreign country till the services start working again. The would-be travelers had either to cancel the trip or to delay it. The airlines suffered from great costs due to the fact that the customers declined their booking. The European costs were about US$2.8 billion because of the loss of the predicted arrivals (The Economic Impacts of Air Travel Restrictions Due to Volcanic Ash, 2010). The counties outside the Europe suffered as well. The USA is the country which was impacted greatly. Its aviation has lost about US$336 million in revenue. Middle East and Africa managed to lose US$253 million in the air transportation sector. In spite of the fact that Asia was considered to be the region where the impact on travelers in numerical form was few est, the aviation lost US$216 million. Moreover, â€Å"global effects of the disruption on GDP were the smallest in Asia at US$517 million, equivalent to around 0.16% of the region’s GDP for the week† (The Economic Impacts of Air Travel Restrictions Due to Volcanic Ash, 2010, p. 8). The impact on passengers was great. Many people could not get home when they planned, that is why many people were left in stranded position not only for the time when the air space was closed but for much longer period. Even though there were so many problems the airline sector had to suffer from because of the Icelandic volcano eruptions and its negative impact on GDP, there were some ways which might reduce that harmful effect.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on The Economic Impact of the Icelandic Volcano Eruptions on the International Economy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, those employees who used to work at home could continue performing their responsibilities from another country, some workers could be substituted for some period of time, others could catch-up the work later, and there could be people who could use the time stranded as the holiday (The Economic Impacts of Air Travel Restrictions Due to Volcanic Ash, 2010). So, it may be completed that even though the shutdown of the European airspace negatively affected the economics of the whole world and GDP level of the countries, there were the ways for solving the problem or at least to reduce the harmful effect caused by the Icelandic volcano eruptions. The Influence of Icelandic Volcano Eruptions on Other Means of Transport The types of transport different from airplanes benefited from the situation. The main reason for such situation is that people tried to look for alternative types of transportation to reach their homes. Trains, ferry, rented cars, sea are the main types of transport people used to reach the place w here they could reach their homes with. It may be said that train and ferry services increased at least twice while the period of time when airspace was closed. It is obvious that airline services are considered to be the fastest and the most convenient means of transport in the relation to others. Still, when the problem appeared and ash resulted from eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano and European airspace was shutdown, people remembered about alternative means of transportation and used those to reach their homes or other places of destination. The most beneficial industries in the situation were railways and car rentals. It is obvious that if people could use other means for reaching their homes, they did all possible to do that. Thus, Eurostar reported that it managed to carry 50,000 extra passengers the next day after the volcano eruption. The increase of the passengers who used the services of the company increased on 33% on 17 April. PO Ferries of France stated that al l places were booked and that they had to employ additional staff temporary to cope with the telephone calls and booking services (Mazzocchi, Hansstein Ragona, 2010, p. 92). At the same time, it is possible to conclude that the alternative means of transport were considered as effective only when small distances and products of long expire date were meant. Otherwise, when the freight should be delivered within a short period of time due to some specific terms and conditions of storage, it is obvious that sea and railway were not the appropriate means of transport that should be considered.Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though many sources state that alternative types of transport benefited from the whole situation and helped people reach the places of their destination as well as the export and import deliveries, it is impossible to state that this substitution was efficient. According to the Swedish Transport Agency report, Swedish State Railways (SJ) and bus companies managed to help some stranded passengers and deliver them to the places they needed. Still, it was impossible for them to replace the airline freights. All the countries reported that even the slightest help from alternative means of transport was visible, it was â€Å"hard to replace international air traffic with buses and even harder to substitute trains, because they are not coordinated internationally† (Skoglund, 2010, p. 47). In conclusion, the means of transport different from airlines were considered as the rescue ones when Eyjafjallajokull volcano erupted. The types of alternative transportation services got ad ditional revenue and only benefited from the situation. At the same time, surface transportation services also suffered great expenses in case when they depended on the air transportation. Thus, the situation in the sphere of surface transportation was rather doubtful, on the one hand, people were given an opportunity to use alternative means of transport and reach the places of their final destination having increased the revenues in the sphere, but on the other hand, some surface transportation companies suffered costs if they depended on the airline delivery. Icelandic Volcano Eruptions Impact on Tourism Industry Iceland is one of the places which is considered to be the center of the international tourism. It is impossible to imagine the better place which combines cold temperature of the air and hot geysers. The country does not have the facilities for heavy industry, but has some specific conditions which increase the possibilities of tourism development. At the same time, it is impossible to state firmly whether the tourism industry was affected positively or negatively by the volcano eruptions. There are a number of reasons for this. The factors which positively influenced the tourism industry on the island due to Eyjafjallajokull volcano eruption were as follows. Firstly, the demand for hotel rooms increased. This was connected with the stranded passengers who had to stay on island. Secondly, people spent more days in Iceland that could not prevent them from attending different entertaining facilities and eating in different restaurants. Thirdly, the use of the surface transport in the country was inevitable that brought more profit to the national economy. The airspace was shut down for several days. This time was not enough to harm the industry greatly. Still, some negative effect was observed as well. The negative impact on the tourism industry in the country was reflected via the following factors. The tour operators, according to the terms of the ATOL regulations, had to provide the tourists with the alternative means of transport free of charge and to offer the would-be tourists other types of transportation suitable for them. This brought some additional costs which should be covered by the tour operators (Oakley-Smith, Rifkind, Cartwright, 2010). Apps (2010) in the report devoted to the economic impact of the volcano eruption in Iceland states that approximately 5% of gross global product accounts for tourism industry. This is about $3 trillion. It is obvious that not all this sum was lost, still, the industry expenses were about $5-10 billion dollars a week. Moreover, the environment problems which have appeared as the result of the eruptions cannot be eliminated too fast, so people would not like to go to the place where nothing is seen because of ash. Moreover, some vulcanologists warn that â€Å"the same thing could happen again for as long as the eruption under the glacier lasts, further threatening struggling fir ms† (Apps, 2010, par. 9). So, it may be concluded that tourism sector is the one which suffered less from the volcano eruptions in Iceland. It may be predicted that the next time people would like to visit his place for a number of reasons. Still, one of those reasons is going to be the desire to visit the place which managed to shake the whole international economy and stop the air flies for several days. Moreover, the Eyjafjallajokull volcano is going to become one more place of interest which is going to attract more people on the island. Influence of Iceland Volcano Eruptions on Export and Import International trade largely depends on rail, road, and sea freight rather than on air transportation. However, the Iceland volcanic disruption has caused serious adversities for international including flowers and foods transportation that heavily relies on air freights. In particular, export operations in Africa and the United Kingdom encounter serious problems due to air cancell ations. Japanese leading car manufacturer Nissan has to postpone the production because it has failed to ship car parts from the Irish Republic and other countries. Clouds of ash caused by the Iceland volcano eruptions have forced thousands of farmers near Equator strike and causing Kenya’s vegetable and flower industry a $ 3 million loss daily (Pflanz, 2010, p. 2). In general, more than $ 12 million has been lost due to incapability to deliver the products to the European market. Such losses provide significant damages to Kenyan economy because horticulture industry is one of the main sources of the country’s revenues. As a result, the bankruptcy of this production line can lead to the increase of unemployment rates and decrease of the country’s gross domestic product. Pflanz (2010) reports, â€Å"5000 farm workers across the industry were told to stat home on Monday as efforts were made to keep flowers and vegetable in the ground rather harvest them† (p . 2). While considering the transportation of fresh vegetables and fruits, the largest category involves leguminous vegetables, such as green pees and beans, and exotic fruits such as mangoes and melons (The Economic Impact of Air Travel Restrictions, 2010). The disruption of airline freights has a negative impact on just-in-time manufacturing. The problems of economical character have touched upon even developed countries such as Japan and the United Kingdom. In particular, Nissan, the leading car manufacturer in Japan, plans to cease the production due to the shortage of key engine controllers that are supplied by Hitachi. The production process and supply chain network was considerably disrupted by volcano eruptions in Iceland providing tangible reasons for economic problems in future (Wakabayashi and Takahashi, 2010). The problems with air freights have always been the main stumble blocks for supply chain management, but volcanism has aggravated the situation to a great extent. In addition, care manufacturing at BMW has also undergone temporary suspensions due to the shortage of pressure sensors that are supplied via air-freights (The Economic Impact of Air Travel Restrictions, 2010). Despite the fact that the production of the leading car industries has not been considerably disrupted by the ecological factors, the consequences of the volcanic eruptions still demonstrate the vital role airline in the international trade for global supply chain management. The ecological disaster has greatly affected the economy of the United Kingdom. In particular, the country will suffer from import shortages of exotic fresh food due to air flight cancellations. Due to the fact that Britain is one of the most developed economies in the world, the ash clouds caused by volcano eruptions in Iceland can considerably worsen the UK economic relationships not only with the Irish Republic, but also with other leading economies (Warner, 2010). Specifically, the disruption and air -flight cancellations threaten Britain’s successful economic activities. Their retail business encounters great losses as well because suppliers of fresh products could be affected and lead to more serious problems. A significant impact will be experienced by pharmaceutical companies because their transactions and transportations heavily rely on the airline sector (Apps, 2010). The least unaffected zone in this term is Asia and the United States whose relationships has not been worsened. The financial recessions can also spread over the economies of South America and Africa whose agricultural manufacturing can be suspended due to the transportation problems. According the report carried out by the Economic Impact of Air Travel Restrictions (2010), â€Å"†¦under $ 300 million of flowers were exported to the EU from Latin America by air in 2009, $ 21 million in April 2009 Alone, with most of this coming from Ecuador and Argentina†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (p. 9). Like Kenya, these ec onomies also heavily rely on horticulture development, which greatly contributes to the economic growth because it affects all economic fields. Impact of Volcanic Eruption on Other Business Costs As it has mentioned previously, the international trade has been greatly affected by the environmental problems in Iceland. The shortages in import and export operations have provided additional expenditures for the elimination of the outcomes of air flight cancellations. In particular, the major attention is focused on the analysis of such areas as airmail, road and rail transportation systems, supply chain management reorganization, telecommunications, and environmental programs. Due to transport and freight limitations, the greatest businesses and economies are also under the threat of financial crisis. In particular, leading industries can lose money due to stranded staff, cancelled meetings, and air mail delays (The Economic Impact of Air Travel Restrictions, 2010). The closure and can cellation of major European air space leaves passengers stranded around the worlds and provides with not possibility for returning home. This is especially problematic when air flights are necessary for arranging business meetings and concluding important agreements. According to the Oxford Economics report (2010), â€Å"Europeans passenger â€Å"stranded days† totaled just less than 2.8 million days and that does not allow for the difficulties passengers are encountering getting home even one the majority of the airspace has reopened† (The Economic Impact of Air Travel Restrictions, 2010). Similar problem occurs of North American, US, Canadian, and Asian passengers. The aviation section has also encountered great financial losses. The estimation of the European commission has revealed that more than 1 million schedules passengers were daily affected during the period of volcanic eruptions. The total number of stranded passengers counted about 10 million, which conside rably influenced the economies and businesses of such leading countries as Great Britain, France, and Germany (Sokglund, 2010). The disruption caused by volcano ash clouds has led to the delay of airmail. Many airmail operations have been suspended or delayed for an uncertain period. In particular, the United Parcel Service and FedEx have also stopped their activities for an indefinite time. The problem is that the largest couriers companies such as DHL, and FedEx, and UPS use air hubs in Germany and France, which are closed now due to recent threat of volcanic eruptions (Apps, 2010). In this regard, the restrictions to air flights can influence the rearrangements of the routs. What is more problematic is that it can lead to the increase of gas prices and demand in crude and oil products (Norrington, 2010). The economic outcomes of the volcanic eruption in Iceland infuse the implementation of various environmental programs that are also followed by significant business costs (Sokglu nd, 2010). Additionally, substantial financial support is necessary for future actions and operations on the prediction and elimination of environmental problems. Impact of Volcanic Eruptions Economic Growth The general economic impact of the volcanic disruption is planned to the relatively minimal. Nevertheless, the suspension period of air transportation might have a detrimental influence on European countries and their economic development. The overall estimation of the consequences of volcanic eruptions for Icelandic economies and the global economy assumes that air transport and services has undergone the greatest losses. The ecological problem has also defined that this economic area is quite significant because it is closely intertwined with production, international trade, and business relations. What is more important is that air transportation system has become an inherent component of the modern economy. The volcano eruptions in Iceland have contributed to financial crisi s of a 2008-2010 period. In particular, this environmental problem has negatively affected the stability of supply chain operations being the basis for business transactions. According to Levinson (2010), â€Å"[d]elays are much more frequent. Even with reduced demand in the current situation, we’ve got missed schedules, missed deliveries, and that has a cost for shippers† (p. 14). In addition, there is a decrease in economies of scale that are dependent on the efficient of air transportation system. The emerging restrictions to air freights and transportation have led to the necessity to increase expenses on fuel energy. However, this problem is less serious in comparison with the costs related with environmental programs at ports that have acquired great significance. Insufficient flexibility of port shipping operations can negatively influence the supply chain systems established in Europe and the United Stated. In addition, the problem of railroad transportation ha s also become urgent because this sphere lacks flexibility and efficiency in comparison with freights carried out via airlines (Levinson, 2010, p. 14). Such contingencies and inconveniences can lead to considerable changes for geographic location of manufacturing. The leading international producers are now developing alternative ways for delivering their products in a timely manner and preventing the economic recession of their businesses. In particular, they are searching for more innovative approaches to lessen their supply chains by moving their production back to their countries. Levinson (2010) emphasizes that â€Å"manufacturers whose supply chains were disrupted will have to decide whether Eyjafioell caused one-time losses or is the harbinger of things to come† (p. 14). Interpreting this, the problem of time-sensitive good would be at issue due to the problems with air transportation. Despite the negative outcomes of Icelandic volcano eruptions, some business areas of the countries have undergone considerable economic growth. This specifically concerns hotel industries and land transportation due to high demand in hotel rooms. Considering future perspective in economics, environmental issues require the deepest consideration. In this respect, International Volcanic Ahs Task Force and ICAO has put forward steps that should be taken at the international level. The agreement stipulates the necessity to take measures and procedures for coping with volcanic ash and this initiative will become the basic framework for implementing those measures at regional level as well. The main scope of agreement consists in introducing consistent and fundamental improvements to predicting the foci of volcanic ash. Other objectives involve alterations in fly and flight conducts where responsibility is to be shifted to the airline operators (The Keilir Aviation Academy Conference, 2010, p. 4). This procedure will be accomplished in a rigidly regulated environment whe re the risk management and assessment of all operations will be carefully carried out and approved by the pertinent aviation authority. All measures and procedures will be approved and testified by the European Commission that plans to conduct researchers and collect necessary information, including satellite images, and other appropriate date connected with volcanic ash contamination (The Keilir Aviation Academy Conference, 2010, p. 5). Conclusion The volcanic eruptions have radically changed the image of international economy. The Icelandic volcano eruptions have specifically altered the airline transportation sector and redirect the focus on other types of transportation. Such areas as tourism, business, export and import have also undergone significant changes. However, the current ecological situation has provided the necessity to introduce solutions which will be closely connected with the above-enumerated fields. The greatest shifts have appeared in the airline sector whose i ndustries have been considerably aggravated due to the shortage of air flights. Numerous businesses and economies blame airline in their financial losses. Specifically, significant losses were encountered by African importers for whom this is the main source of country’s revenues. Other developing countries from South American have also experienced the outcomes of volcano eruptions in Iceland. Apart from this, the leading economies of the world have also faced significant challenges. Particularly, Japan and the United Kingdom has been forced to changes their economic and financial strategies to eliminate serious financial losses. A matter of timing and delivery, therefore, has acquired a great importance for the international trade. The tourism sector is not considerably affected by the volcanic eruptions in Iceland. Despite the fact the tourism industries has suffered some financial losses, still the stranded passengers being unable to return home will have to spend money an d this can compensate those losses. If the disruption suspends for a longer period of time, it could have much serious outcomes for this economic sector. A significant change has occurred to the international trade trends, specifically to supply chain management. The leading just-in-time producers will have to alter their orientation and move their operations back to their countries. A specific focus will now be made on rail and road transportation that greatly benefits from recent volcano eruptions in Iceland. With regard to the presented problem, serious measures and programs should be introduced to minimize the negative outcomes of this ecological problem. It should be stressed that researchers in this field should be dedicated to the analysis of environmental issues. In addition, little research has been done on tourism, business costs, and economic perspectives. Therefore, these areas should also be regarded more carefully. Reference List Apps,  P.  (2010).  Economy  im pact  to  rise  sharply  if  ash  lingers.  Reuters.  Retrieved from  http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE63I0Q120100419?pageNumber=1 Levinson,  M.  (2010).  Of  volcanoes  and  supply  chains.  Industrial  Engineer.  42(6), 14. Mazzocchi, M., Hansstein, F., Ragona, M. (2010). The 2010 Volcanic Ash Cloud and Its Financial Impact on The European Airline Industry. CESifo Forum, 2, 92-100. Norrignton,  B.  (2010).  Financial  and  Physical  Fallout  from  Iceland  Volcanic  Ash.  US  Santa  Barbara  Department  of  Geography.  Retrieved  from  http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/events/department-news/699/financial-and-physical-fallout-from-iceland-s-volcanic-ash/ Oakley-Smith, I., Rifkind, C., Cartwright, B. (2010, May). After the dust has settled†¦ Financial fallout from the Icelandic volcano. Hospitality and Leisure: Hospitality Directions Europe Client Briefing. PriceWatrHouseCoopers. Pflanz,  M.  (2010, April 19). How the  Iceland  volcano  ash  cloud  is crippling  Kenya’s flower industry. Christian  Science  Monitor, p.  N.PAG Skoglund,  J.M.  (2010). Aviation Trends: Statistics, analysis and information from the Swedish transport agency. Swedish Transport Agency. Retrieved from: http://www.transportstyrelsen.se/Global/Luftfart/Marknad_och_omvarld/aviationtrends_2010_web.pdf The Economic Impacts of Air Travel Restrictions Due to Volcanic Ash. (2010). Oxford Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.oef.com/free/pdfs/volcanicupdate.pdf The  Keilir  Aviation  Academy  Conference  (2010).  Ã‚  Atlantic  Conference  on Eyjafjallajokull  and  Aviation  15-16  September,  Keflavik  Airport,  Iceland. Retrieved  from  http://en.keilir.net/static/files/Aviation/PDF/Summary_Keilir_Aviaition%20Conference.pdf Wakabayashi,  D.  Ã‚  Takahashi,  Y.  (2010).  Nissan  Hitch  Has  Swiss  Roots.  The  Wall Street  J ournal.  Retrieved  from:  http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704518904575365992734684322.html Warner,  J.  (2010).  Iceland’s  Eyjafjallajà ¶kull  visits  volcanic  revenge  on  Britain.  The Telegraph.  Retrieved  from  http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/finance/jeremywarner/100004934/icelands-eyjafjallajokull-visits-volcanic-revenge-on-britain/ This term paper on The Economic Impact of the Icelandic Volcano Eruptions on the International Economy was written and submitted by user Adrien Mcmahon to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Free Essays on Analysis Of IPsec

Topic: Analysis of IPsec. 1) IPSec protocol is used for creating means for secure exchange of information between systems and networks on the Internet. IPsec protocol helps users to create â€Å"private groups† based on common interest, independently from specifications of the networks they are using. 2) IPSec protocol includes two protocols: Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulating Secure Payload (ESP). AH creates an envelope that ensures authentication of the source of the information, the completeness and protection from double messaging. à ¼ This way AH offers layers of ways to protect from malicious users. With help of AH every packet is authenticated, which makes ineffective programs that are trying to capture the administration of the session. Besides this AH protocol tries to ensure the authentication of the headers of IP-packets, not depending on the location of the IP-headers outside of the envelope it is creating. AH Authentication prevents IP-header line manipulation during the transfer of the packet. Because of this reason protocol cannot be used in the environment where NAT (Network Address Translation – is a mechanism used for transferring network addresses) is being used. This is because NAT requires IP-header manipulation, which AH Authentication will not allow. à ¼ ESP protocol ensures confidentiality of the information and executes functions of the AH protocol protection of the encrypted not authenticated information. IPSec specification allows ESP protocol use without AH functions. However, it’s not a good idea to do this, unless you really know what you are doing and why. In ESP protocol it’s possible to use fictitious encryption, which is equal to AH implementation without IP-header. This allows using NAT mechanism, because in this method the addresses in the headers can be modified. ESP and AH protocols are registered in IANA organization (Internet Address Naming Authority) and are ... Free Essays on Analysis Of IPsec Free Essays on Analysis Of IPsec Topic: Analysis of IPsec. 1) IPSec protocol is used for creating means for secure exchange of information between systems and networks on the Internet. IPsec protocol helps users to create â€Å"private groups† based on common interest, independently from specifications of the networks they are using. 2) IPSec protocol includes two protocols: Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulating Secure Payload (ESP). AH creates an envelope that ensures authentication of the source of the information, the completeness and protection from double messaging. à ¼ This way AH offers layers of ways to protect from malicious users. With help of AH every packet is authenticated, which makes ineffective programs that are trying to capture the administration of the session. Besides this AH protocol tries to ensure the authentication of the headers of IP-packets, not depending on the location of the IP-headers outside of the envelope it is creating. AH Authentication prevents IP-header line manipulation during the transfer of the packet. Because of this reason protocol cannot be used in the environment where NAT (Network Address Translation – is a mechanism used for transferring network addresses) is being used. This is because NAT requires IP-header manipulation, which AH Authentication will not allow. à ¼ ESP protocol ensures confidentiality of the information and executes functions of the AH protocol protection of the encrypted not authenticated information. IPSec specification allows ESP protocol use without AH functions. However, it’s not a good idea to do this, unless you really know what you are doing and why. In ESP protocol it’s possible to use fictitious encryption, which is equal to AH implementation without IP-header. This allows using NAT mechanism, because in this method the addresses in the headers can be modified. ESP and AH protocols are registered in IANA organization (Internet Address Naming Authority) and are ...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Ancient Mayan Warriors and Warfare

Ancient Mayan Warriors and Warfare The Maya were a mighty civilization based in the low, rainy forests of southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize whose culture peaked around 800 A.D. before going into steep decline. Historical anthropologists used to believe the Maya were a peaceful people, who warred upon one another rarely if at all, preferring instead to dedicate themselves to astronomy, building, and other non-violent pursuits. Recent advances in the interpretation of stonework at Maya sites have changed that, however, and the Maya are now considered a very violent, warmongering society. Wars and warfare were important to the Maya for a variety of reasons, including subjugation of neighboring city-states, prestige, and capture of prisoners for slaves and sacrifices. Traditional Pacifist Views of the Maya Historians and cultural anthropologists began seriously studying the Maya in the early 1900s. These first historians were impressed with the great Maya interest in the cosmos and astronomy and their other cultural achievements, such as the Maya calendar and their large trade networks. There was ample evidence of a warlike tendency among the Maya - carved scenes of battle or sacrifice, walled compounds, stone, and obsidian weapon points, etc. - but the early Mayanists ignored this evidence, instead of sticking to their notions of the Maya as a peaceful people. As the glyphs on the temples and stelae began to yield their secrets to dedicated linguists, however, a very different picture of the Maya emerged. The Maya City-States Unlike the Aztecs of Central Mexico and the Inca of the Andes, the Maya were never a single, unified empire organized and administered from a central city. Instead, the Maya were a series of city-states in the same region, linked by language, trade, and certain cultural similarities, but often in lethal contention with one another for resources, power, and influence. Powerful cities like Tikal, Calakmul, and Caracol frequently warred upon one another or upon smaller cities. Small raids into enemy territory were common: attacking and defeating a powerful rival city was rare but not unheard of. The Maya Military Wars and major raids were led by the Ahau or King. Members of the highest ruling class often were military and spiritual leaders of the cities and their capture during battles was a key element of military strategy. It is believed that many of the cities, especially the larger ones, had large, well-trained armies available for attack and defense. It is unknown if the Maya had a professional soldier class as the Aztecs did. Maya Military Goals The Maya city-states went to war with one another for several different reasons. Part of it was military dominance: to bring more territory or vassal states under the command of a larger city. Capturing prisoners was a priority, especially high-ranking ones. These prisoners would be ritually humiliated at the victorious city: sometimes, the battles were played out again in the ball court, with the losing prisoners sacrificed after the â€Å"game.† It is known that some of these prisoners remained with their captors for years before finally being sacrificed. Experts disagree about whether these wars were waged solely for the purpose of taking prisoners, like the famous Flower Wars of the Aztecs. Late in the Classic period, when the warring in the Maya region became much worse, cities would be attacked, looted and destroyed. Warfare and Architecture The Maya penchant for warfare is reflected in their architecture. Many of the major and minor cities have defensive walls, and in the later Classic period, newly-founded cities were no longer established near productive land, as they had been previously, but rather on defensible sites such as hilltops. The structure of the cities changed, with the important buildings all being inside the walls. Walls could be as high as ten to twelve feet (3.5 meters) and were usually made of stone supported by wooden posts. Sometimes the construction of walls seemed desperate: in some cases, walls were built right up to important temples and palaces, and in some cases (notably the Dos Pilas site) important buildings were taken apart for stone for the walls. Some cities had elaborate defenses: Ek Balam in the Yucatan had three concentric walls and the remains of a fourth one in the city center. Famous Battles and Conflicts The best-documented and possibly the most important conflict was the struggle between Calakmul and Tikal in the fifth and sixth centuries. These two powerful city-states were each dominant politically, militarily and economically in their regions, but were also relatively close to one another. They began warring, with vassal cities like Dos Pilas and Caracol changing hands as the power of each respective city waxed and waned. In 562 A.D. Calakmul and/or Caracol defeated the mighty city of Tikal, which fell into a brief decline before regaining its former glory. Some cities were hit so hard that they never recovered, like Dos Pilas in 760 A.D. and Aguateca sometime around 790 A.D. Effects of Warfare on Maya Civilization Between 700 and 900 A.D., most of the important Maya cities in the south and central regions of the Maya civilization went silent, their cities abandoned. The decline of the Maya civilization is still a mystery. Different theories have been proposed, including excessive warfare, drought, plague, climate change and more: some belief in a combination of factors. Warfare almost certainly had something to do with the disappearance of the Maya civilization: by the ​late Classic period wars, battles and skirmishes were quite common and important resources were dedicated to wars and city defenses. Source: McKillop, Heather. The Ancient Maya: New Perspectives. New York: Norton, 2004.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Healthcare services Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Healthcare services - Essay Example One manifestation of these policies is the appointment of Patient Information Strategy Project Manager (PISPM) at the North Devon Primary Care Trust (PCT). North Devon PCT developed a strategy to involve the public and provide multiple services to enhance the understanding of patient needs within the PCT. They also aim to improve the knowledge based from the patients and general publics' opinion. PISPM post's performances have strengths and weaknesses but they also play an important role in leading this strategy. By improving North Devon Information Strategy, value will be added in developing a greater public involvement in North Devon PCT. Patient & Public Involvement Definition Patient & Public involvement and other allied terms are used to covey a variety of meanings. Public involvement refers to the involvement of individual patients, together with health professionals, in making decisions about their own health care (Florin & Dixon 2004). According to the Department of Health, patient and public involvement is not just about structures, it is a cultural change. It is about empowering patients and the public to have a role in health care society. ... Through these practices, the way to address the needs of the growing number of people with chronic conditions will now be appropriate and effective. Hennessy (2002) pointed out that involving individual encourages and empowers them. The sense of ownership improves health outcomes and patient experiences. On the other hand, the Trusts will also benefit from this involvement. It will provide a more responsive service, which meets the local needs. Involvement in NHS activities encourages staff to consider alternative ways of meeting the care needs and look at providing services from a different perspective which is that of the patients' perspective. Florin & Dixon (2004) indicated that involving the public may help ensure health policy decisions better reflect the values of the community. It will make services more responsive to the individuals and communities who uses them and that more responsive services will lead to improved health. Patient & Public Involvement Policies Policies to encourage public involvement in the NHS are not new. Previous governments have used various policies in an attempt to encourage democratic and informal decisions in the NHS. A review of policies from 1948 to 1997 showed that public involvement in the NHS decreased over this period (Harrison, Milewa and Dowswell 2002). In contrast, Klein & New (1996) reviewed the period from 1990 and concluded that there had been a moderate increase in democracy in the NHS. Since the Labor government came to power in 1997, a new raft of policies has been introduced with the stated aim of increased public or patient involvement. The NHS Plan, published in July 2000, aimed to give the